Haptic Rendering: Foundations, Algorithms and Applications
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For a long time, human beings have dreamed of a virtual world where it is possible to interact with synthetic entities as if they were real. It has been shown that the ability to touch virtual objects increases the sense of presence in virtual environments. This book provides an authoritative overview of state-of-theart haptic rendering algorithms and their applications. The authors examine various approaches and techniques for designing touch-enabled interfaces for a number of applications, including medical training, model design, and maintainability analysis for virtual prototyping, scientific visualization, and creative processes.
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Aﬀected by the particular eﬀector used to respond (though see [Maravita et al. 02c]). It should therefore be borne in mind that the spatial and non-spatial versions of the crossmodal congruency task may recruit somewhat diﬀerent multisensory brain mechanisms. 2.2.3 Stimulus Timing and the Crossmodal Congruency Effect [Shore et al. 06] recently conducted a parametric investigation into the eﬀects of varying the timing of the presentation of the visual distractor relative to the onset of the.
Spence 06]. This schema is most often thought of as an on going and constantly updated internal representation of the shape of the body, and of the position of the body in space, both in respect to the external world, and in relation to its own parts [Berlucchi and Aglioti 97, Graziano and Botvinick 02]. ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ 40 2. Multi-Sensory Interactions Many researchers have argued that tools can be assimilated into the body schema [Berlucchi and Aglioti 97, Wolpert et al. 98, Yamamoto.
Instability frequently arises from a lack of passivity when rendering virtual environments. In order to maintain passivity, vir- ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ 156 7. Stability of Haptic Displays tual environment impedance can be reduced to acceptable levels for passivity, but this depends upon the speciﬁc hardware used, and highly complex virtual environments make this undesirable. To preserve the universality and accuracy of virtual environments, virtual couplings can be used to modulate the.
Computation algorithm between non-overlapping convex polytopes. It is often referred to as the LC algorithm and it keeps track of the closest features between the polytopes. This is the ﬁrst approach that explicitly takes advantage of motion coherence and geometric locality. The features may correspond to a vertex, face, or an edge on each polytope. It precomputes the external Voronoi region for each polytope. At each time step, it starts with a pair of features and checks whether they are the.
Common or “basic level” name [Rosch 78]). For one set of objects, geometric properties (shape, size) were particularly diagnostic (e.g., picture hook), and for the other set, texture was diagnostic (e.g., clay ﬂower pot). The task was a two-alternative forced choice (true or false: was a named object the presented object?). Accuracy with the probe was far from perfect (d = 1.21 for the probe versus 2.50 for the bare ﬁnger). The diﬀerence between the two sets of objects was particularly large for.