William J. Kaufmann
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Universe: The Solar System, Third Edition
Universe: Stars and Galaxies, Third Edition
Distinctive colors when sprinkled into a flame. To facilitate study of these colors, around 1857 the German chemist Robert Bunsen invented a gas burner (today called a Bunsen burner) that produces a clean flame with no color of its own. Bunsen’s colleague, the Prussian- Figure 5-13 RI V UXG The Sun’s Spectrum Numerous dark spectral lines are seen in this image of the Sun’s spectrum. The spectrum is spread out so much that it had to be cut into segments to fit on this page. (N. A. Sharp,.
In science. Describe one reason why it is useful to have telescopes in space. What caused the craters on the Moon? What are meteorites? Why are they important for understanding the history of the solar system? 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 17 What makes the Sun and stars shine? What role do nebulae like the Orion Nebula play in the life stories of stars? What is the difference between a solar system and a galaxy? What are degrees, arcminutes, and arcseconds used.
6:30 P.M. the following evening. Tools: We use the definitions depicted in the figure. Review: Our answer was based on the idea that the celestial Answer: Since the circle used to measure this star’s sphere makes exactly one complete rotation in 24 hours. If this were so, from one night to the next each star would be in exactly the same position at a given time. But because of the way that we customarily measure time, the celestial sphere makes slightly more than one complete rotation in 24.
The planet takes to go once around the Sun: Planet's elliptical orbit B A Sun at one focus of elliptical orbit Perihelion: where planet is closest to the Sun D Planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals Aphelion: where planet is farthest from the sun 4.6 TIO MA N ANI C Figure 4-11 Kepler’s First and Second Laws According to Kepler’s first law, a planet travels around the Sun along an elliptical orbit with the Sun at one focus. According to his second law, a planet moves.
Physicist Ludwig Boltzmann showed how it could be derived mathematically from basic assumptions about atoms and molecules. For this reason, Stefan’s law is commonly known as the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Written as an equation, the StefanBoltzmann law is Stefan-Boltzmann law for a blackbody F ϭ T 4 F ϭ energy flux, in joules per square meter of surface per second ϭ a constant ϭ 5.67 ϫ 10Ϫ8 W mϪ2 KϪ4 T ϭ object’s temperature, in kelvins The value of the constant (the Greek letter sigma) is known.