The Essential Cosmic Perspective (7th Edition)
Jeffrey O. Bennett, Nicholas Schneider, Mark Voit
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The Essential Cosmic Perspective, Seventh Edition gives non-science majors a streamlined, cutting edge introduction to astronomy built on a strong tradition of effective pedagogy and coverage. Focus on skill building includes new group work exercises that require active participation, helping you to retain concepts longer and build communication skills. MasteringAstronomy® works with the text to create a learning program that enables you to learn interactively both in and out of the classroom.
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To the South Pole. orbit (revolution) The orbital motion of one object around another. For example, Earth orbits around the Sun once each year. expansion (of the universe) The increase in the average distance between galaxies as time progresses. Note that while the universe as a whole is expanding, individual galaxies and galaxy clusters do not expand. Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 5 cosmic Context Figure 1.2. Our Cosmic Origins Throughout this book we will see that human life is.
Almost 10 trillion km. commonMisconceptions The Meaning of a Light-Year You’ve probably heard people say things like “It will take me lightyears to ﬁnish this homework!” But a statement like this one doesn’t make sense, because light-years are a unit of distance, not time. If you are unsure whether the term light-year is being used correctly, try testing the statement by replacing “1 light-year” with its equivalent distance of “10 trillion kilometers” or “6 trillion miles.” The statement then.
Changes in the angular separations of stars. However, no matter how hard they searched, they could ﬁnd no sign of stellar parallax. They concluded that one of the following must be true: 1. Earth orbits the Sun, but the stars are so far away that stellar parallax is not detectable to the naked eye. 2. There is no stellar parallax because Earth remains stationary at the center of the universe. January Figure 2.28 Stellar parallax is an apparent shift in the position of a nearby star as we look.
Other Greeks ﬁrst began to think that Earth is round, but this idea was being taught as early as about 500 B.C. by the famous mathematician Pythagoras (c. 560–480 B.C.). He and his followers envisioned Earth as a sphere ﬂoating at the center of the celestial sphere. More than a century later, Aristotle cited observations of Earth’s curved shadow on the Moon during lunar eclipses as evidence for a spherical Earth. Thus, Greek philosophers adopted a geocentric model of the universe (recall that.
Earth-centered model. 5 Galileo’s experiments and telescopic observations overcame remaining scientific objections to the Sun-centered model. Together, Galileo's discoveries and the success of Kepler's laws in predicting planetary motion overthrew the Earth-centered model once and for all. full gibbous gibbous quarter quarter Sun crescent crescent new Earth With his telescope, Galileo saw phases of Venus that are consistent only with the idea that Venus orbits the Sun rather than Earth.