The Data Book of Astronomy
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The Data Book of Astronomy is a one-stop reference for astronomers at all levels of experience, from beginners to experienced observers. Filled with data about the Earth, Moon, the planets, the stars, our Galaxy, and the myriad galaxies in deep space, it also reveals the latest scientific discoveries about black holes, quasars, and the origins of the Universe.
Written by a premier astronomy expert, this book begins with a discussion of the Sun, from sunspots to solar eclipses. It then features over 100 tables on characteristics of the Moon, and the names, positions, sizes, and other key descriptors of all the planets and their satellites. The book tabulates solar and lunar eclipse, comets, close-approach asteroids, and significant meteor showers dates. Twenty-four maps show the surface features of the planets and their moons. The author then looks to the stars, their distances and movements, and their detailed classification and evolution. Forty-eight star charts cover both northern and southern hemispheres, enabling you to track down and name the main stars in all the constellations.
The maps are supported by detailed tables of the names, positions, magnitudes, and spectra of the main stars in each constellation, along with key data on galaxies, nebulae, and clusters. There is a useful catalogue of the world's great telescopes and observatories, a history of astronomy and of space research, and biographies of 250 astronomers who have been most influential in developing the current understanding of the subject.
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Strain. Like all the icy satellites, Mimas is very cold; the surface temperature is given as about −200 ◦ C. A selected list of surface features is given in Table 10.8. 180 THE DATA BOOK OF ASTRONOMY Table 10.8. Selected list of features on Mimas. (Bold numbers indicate map references.) Name Craters Arthur 1 Balin 2 Ban 3 Bedivere 4 Bors 5 Dynas 6 Gaheris 7 Galahad 8 Gareth 9 Gwynevere 10 Herschel 11 Igraine 12 Iseult 13 Kay 14 Launcelot 15 Merlin 16 Modred 17 Morgan 18 Pellinore 19 Percivale.
1611, by the lengths of their shadows. He concentrated on the lunar Apennines, and although he over-estimated their altitudes his results were of the right order. Much better results were obtained by J. H. Schr¨oter, from 1778. The first systems of nomenclature were introduced in 1645 by van Langren (Langrenus) and in 1647 by Hevelius, THE DATA BOOK OF ASTRONOMY 29 THE MOON but few of these names have survived; for example, the crater we now call Plato was named by Hevelius ‘the Greater Black.
Of planets and (particularly) asteroids. However, Spencer Jones’ value as derived from the close approach of the asteroid Eros in 1931 was too high. THE SUN Table 2.2. Selected estimates of the length of the astronomical unit. Year Authority Method 1672 1672 1770 1771 1814 1823 1867 1877 1877 1878 G. D. Cassini J. Flamsteed L. Euler J. de Lalande J. Delambre J. F. Encke S. Newcomb G. Airy E. T. Stone J. Galle 1884 1896 1911 1925 1939 1950 1962 1992 M. Houzeau D. Gill J. Hinks H. Spencer.
Area; low walls. St¨ofler area; fairly regular. Libration zone; on N edge of Smythii; low walls. Fridtjof; Norwegian explorer Ajima; Japanese mathematician Nasir al-Din; Persian astronomer James; Scottish engineer Russian female name Karl; German geologist Michael; German mathematician Greek explorer Edmond Neville; British selenographer John; Scottish mathematician Georg; German meteorologist Simon; Canadian astronomer Sir Isaac; British mathematician Seth; American astronomer Friedrich; German.
Altitudes are reckoned from sea-level, but there are no seas on Mars and it has been agreed to use a datum line where the average atmospheric pressure is 6.2 mbars. This means that all values of altitudes and depressions must be regarded as somewhat arbitrary. The two hemispheres are not alike. Generally speaking, the southern part of the planet is heavily cratered and much of it lies up to 3 km above the datum line; the northern part is lower – mainly below the datum line – and is more lightly.