Our First Revolution: The Remarkable British Upheaval That Inspired America's Founding Fathers
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In this exciting work of popular history, Michael Barone brings the story of the Glorious Revolution–an unlikely late-seventeenth-century British uprising–to American readers and reveals that, without it, the American Revolution may never have happened. With a strong narrative drive and unforgettable portraits of kings, queens, and soldiers, Barone takes an episode that has fallen into unjustified obscurity and restores it to the prominence it deserves.
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To “die in the last ditch” and ordered the opening of the dikes; the flooding kept the French out of Amsterdam and The Hague. England was not successful at sea. In July, James led the fleet in search of the Dutch fleet, but it refused battle and the ships returned to port in August.62 When Parliament met in February 1673, for the first time in nearly two years, the House of Commons refused to provide funds needed for the fleet to sail unless Charles revoked the Declaration of Indulgence he had.
Opinion in Crisis, 1678–81 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 360. See Plumb, The Growth of Political Stability, 15–16: “Neither monarch nor minister was able to create a system of control by which the social, economic, and political life of the nation could be given coherence and order.” 63. Tim Harris, London Crowds in the Reign of Charles II: Propaganda and Politics from the Restoration Until the Exclusion Crisis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 98. 64. Scott,.
Press, 1997), 104–5. 64. Baxter, William III, 225. 65. Ibid., 231. Others believe that William’s fear that the English would set up a republic was exaggerated, but concede that it was real. Jones, The Revolution of 1688 in England, 235. 66. Western, Monarchy and Revolution, 252. 67. Miller, James II, 185. William’s biographer Stephen Baxter, in his pungent prose, espies another motive. William, he writes, “could see another reason for intervention. That was that James had already destroyed.
And where great changes could occur quickly. Twenty-first-century readers may look over lists of kings and suppose that their succession was automatic and that they held untrammeled power. William and Churchill, like Charles and James, knew from bitter personal experience that that was very far from being the case. Had Oliver Cromwell, who died at 58, lived on into the 1660s and 1670s, Charles and James might have remained exiles all their lives. Had Louis not invaded the United Provinces in.
Hugh Mackay, conspicuously in the lead. He avoided much of the crowd by taking a short cut from Knightsbridge through St. James’s Park and entered Whitehall Palace, which James had left just hours before.82 One of his first acts was to order Lord Churchill to disperse the English, Scottish, and Irish troops from London; the city would be patrolled by the Dutch Blue Guards for the next 10 years.83 The Dutch stadholder was now the master of England. Chapter 8 KING WILLIAM ST. JAMES’S.