Extreme States of Matter: on Earth and in the Cosmos (The Frontiers Collection)

Extreme States of Matter: on Earth and in the Cosmos (The Frontiers Collection)

Language: English

Pages: 332

ISBN: 3642164633

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub


With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams, electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.

Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview.



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Temperatures and at reasonably high baryon densities), where all the most dramatic new features of QCD collective behavior are expected to be located. These are all listed here: - Low-energy RHIC at Brookhaven (USA). NA61 (SHINE) at SPS-CERN (Switzerland). CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter) at FAIR Darmstadt (Germany). MPD at JINR-NICA in Dubna (Russian Federation). RHIC will work in the collider mode, similarly to what is planned for NICA, whereas SPS-CERN and FAIR will operate in the fixed.

Integral part of the NICA project. Indeed, ever since the “spin crisis” of 1987, the composition of the nucleon spin in terms of fundamental constituents – quarks and gluons – remains at the focus of attention of physicists. Highlights of the NICA spin program include: - measurements of Drell–Yan processes with longitudinally polarized proton and deuteron beams, 136 5 Relativistic Charged Particle Beams - spin effects in the inclusive and exclusive production of baryons, - light and heavy.

The temperature dependence of the thermonuclear reaction rates (Fig. 6.3) makes deuterium–tritium fusion the reaction of choice; a temperature of ≈ 2–10 keV is required to make this reaction highly efficient. For a thermonuclear plasma expansion velocity of 108 cm/s, this leads to a characteristic time of ≈ 10−9 s in the case of a spherical target ≈ 10−1 cm in diameter. The energy balance condition for this thermonuclear reaction (the Lawson criterion [84, 15, 90, 74]) is of the form nτ ≈ ρ r/4cs.

Energy to electromagnetic radiation and their efficiency, as well as from the standpoint of the properties and power of the electromagnetic radiation that may be obtained in the interaction of high-power short laser pulses with the plasma. The transformation of longitudinal plasma waves to transverse electromagnetic waves is possible, for instance, in the presence of plasma density nonuniformity or under imposition of an external magnetic field. The generation of low-frequency (terahertz).

Plasma confinement P ≈ 200 Gbar, ρ ≈ 150–200 g/cm3 , and T ≈ 108 eV. Neutron stars, which are elements of pulsars, black holes, γ -ray bursts and magnetars, have what are thought to be the record parameters P ≈ 1019 Mbar, ρ ≈ 1011 g/cm3 , T ≈ 104 eV for the mantle and for the core P ≈ 1022 Mbar, ρ ≈ 1014 g/cm3 , T ≈ 104 eV for a great magnetic field of 1011 –1016 Gs (1 Gs = 10−4 T). As noted above, by the lower bound of “high energy densities” we mean an energy density comparable to the binding.

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