Extreme Explosions: Supernovae, Hypernovae, Magnetars, and Other Unusual Cosmic Blasts (Astronomers' Universe) 2014 edition by Stevenson, David S. (2013) Paperback
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Resulting Type IIn light curve was actually a composite of an inherent Type Ia supernova buried within the hydrogen-rich debris of its former envelope or that of its companion. In theory two possible models could account for the relatively massive hydrogen-rich envelope around SN 2002ic – and perhaps SN 1997cy. The first is a conventional Type Ia supernova that occurred within the dense envelope of an AGB star (or simply detonating close to this star); the second is a theoretical Type 1.5.
Conference proceeding of the “Icko-fest” Advances in Stellar Evolution, Liebert and �colleagues tentatively suggested that the ignition of helium under degenerate conditions could compress the carbon-oxygen core to the point that it too detonated. The systems involved were the AM CVn binaries mentioned above. At the time it was thought that these Type Ia events might be under-luminous. However, aside from that, it really wasn’t clear just how these explosions might appear until several years.
The torus of material shed during the eruption. In terms of its altering the evolution of the giant star, the collision may have had less impact than you’d expect. The extra mass in the hydrogen-burning shell and the envelope certainly made the star initially brighter than it would otherwise have been. However, it is the mass of the helium core that has the greatest impact on the fate of a star. Adding hydrogen to the hydrogen-burning shell may make the final mass of the helium core somewhat.
Simple creatures. There are a plethora of variables that can and do evolve over time. Therefore, a multivariate analysis of supernovae is now needed. In this approach several variables are considered at once, instead of simply splitting the data into nodes using single variables, such as the abundance of hydrogen or silicon. In a data universe filled with thousands of examples of supernovae an effective statistical approach is needed to categorize the increasing population of explosions that are.
Descended, contracting and heating, with Jupiter �forming from within the swirling disc of gas and dust surrounding it. But before the Sun ignited its engines, a nearby star evolved away from the main sequence, its high mass dictating a short life. The Sun and infant planets breathed a temporary sigh of relief as the ultraviolet radiation that threatened their formation died away. A million years after this star left the main sequence, cooling and brightening as a red supergiant, its core.