Computational Intelligence: A Methodological Introduction (Texts in Computer Science)

Computational Intelligence: A Methodological Introduction (Texts in Computer Science)

Language: English

Pages: 492

ISBN: 1447150120

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

This clearly-structured, classroom-tested textbook/reference presents a methodical introduction to the field of CI. Providing an authoritative insight into all that is necessary for the successful application of CI methods, the book describes fundamental concepts and their practical implementations, and explains the theoretical background underpinning proposed solutions to common problems. Only a basic knowledge of mathematics is required. Features: provides electronic supplementary material at an associated website, including module descriptions, lecture slides, exercises with solutions, and software tools; contains numerous examples and definitions throughout the text; presents self-contained discussions on artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, fuzzy systems and Bayesian networks; covers the latest approaches, including ant colony optimization and probabilistic graphical models; written by a team of highly-regarded experts in CI, with extensive experience in both academia and industry.

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I.e. 3 according to rule R 1. The similarity degree of 1 to 0 is nothing but the membership degree of the value 1 to the extensional hull of 0, that is, to the fuzzy set small, which is 0.75. The input (1,1) also similar to the input pair (4,0) in rule R 2, however, much less similar than to (0,0). The similarity degree of 1 to 4 is 0.25, the similarity of 1 to 0 is again 0.75. Thus, the output value for (1,1) should be quite similar to the output value 3 for the input (0,0) (rule R 1) but also a.

1.Determine for a parentless node A i the quality measure q i (∅). 2.Then, all predecessors {A 1,…,A i−1} are tested individually as potential parent nodes and the quality measure is recomputed. Let Y be the node that leads to the best quality: This best quality be g=q i ({Y}). 3.If g is better than q i (∅), the node Y is permanently added as a parent of A i : . 4.Steps 2 and 3 are repeated to augment the parent node set until no potential attributes are left, the quality cannot be increased.

Unit Thymine Tit for tat Tit for two tat Topological ordering Topology preserving map Total ordering Total probability Tournament selection Tournament size Training batch online Training epoch Training pattern Transmutation Transposition Trapezoidal functions Traveling salesman problem asymmetric encoding symmetric Tree join minimum spanning parse Triangular conorm Triangular function Triangular norm Triangulated graph Triangulation Truth functionality TS model.

Both the old and the new energy. Hence, we have The factor  vanishes because of the symmetry of the weights, due to which every term of the sum occurs twice. From the above sums, we can extract the new and the old activation of the neuron u and thus reach We now have to distinguish two cases. If , then the second factor is less than 0. In addition, it is , and since we assumed that the activation changed due to the update, we know . Therefore, the first factor is greater than 0 and hence.

Break, and rejoin in a modified fashion, thus exchanging genetic material between (homologous) chromosomes. As a result offspring with new or at least modified genetic plans and thus physical traits is created. The vast majority of these (genetic) modifications are unfavorable or even harmful, in the worst case rendering the resulting individual unable to live. However, there is a (small) chance that some of these modifications result in (small) improvements, endowing the individual with traits.

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